The Archaeology Section (until 2015 the Archaeology Department) collects material culture relics documenting the most ancient history and life of human communities in the area between the Vistula and the Bug rivers from the Paleolithic to the early Middle Ages. It conducts its own field research, organised with the participation of the Voivodeship Office for the Protection of Monuments in Lublin.
The archaeological collection of the Archaeology Section of the National Museum in Lublin consists of over 40,000 of its own monuments and 78,000 deposited by the Voivodeship conservator of monuments in Lublin. The first excavations on behalf of the Lublin Museum were carried out in 1951.
In the research work carried out so far, the source base for learning about the prehistory, medieval and modern times of our region has been enormously enriched in both quantitative and qualitative terms. Among the historic artefacts dated from the Middle Palaeolithic to modern times, apart from the museum objects obtained during excavation works carried out by archaeologists from the Museum, one can find artefacts from the research carried out by archaeological conservators, monuments conservation worhskops in Lublin, the Institute of Archaeology of the Maria Curie-Skłodowska University, and recently objects provided by private archaeological companies operating in the Lublin region. The collections of the Archaeology Section is constantly enriched by relics discovered by chance.
The exhibits collected represent all prehistoric cultures. In addition to ceramics, the most numerous in the cultural inventory, the collection includes tools and weapons made of stone, metal, bones and horns; shell, bone, copper, bronze, iron, faience, glass and gold ornaments, as well as numismatic items. The archaeological section also stores documentation from field research and houses a photographic archive.